The abundant traces of craft specialisation shell working, bead cutting, copper working at Dholavira, Lothal, and Harappan Nagwada stand in stark contrast with the near absence of these activities in the periphery. Similarly, the sophistication statin distinct vessel forms reflecting specific usages does not find its parallel in the periphery. The great variety of materials used for ornaments not only reveals refinement in taste, but also manifests traces of long-distance trade. The small settlements of Nageshwar on the tip of Beyt Dwarka Western Saurashtra and Nagwada at the mouth of the Ru- pen-valley Northern Gujarat Plains seem to be industrial shell-working sites with the latter also showing evidence of bead-manufacture They indicate that craft specialisation finds its expression in the settlement pattern itself, infiltrating the periphery.
Although coastal Nageshwar geographically 19 20 Fig.
"Harappan" Gujara : the Archaeology-Chronology Connection.
Ground tradingg of hraappan at Surkotada, Rojdi, Zekhada, and Wass. Ground plan of pastoral huts at Mature Harappan Zekhada Zekdain: MEHTA Herman belongs to Saurashtra, the ceramic and shell material at this site illustrate tradihg the site was certainly in phase trsding functioning within the Kutch settlement network across the Gulf of Kutch The great number of fortified settlements in Kutch are indicative of the importance the inhabitants attached to this sub-region The small, planned settlements with bastion fortifications clearly indicate that these are not ordinary hharappan, but that they also exercised a specific, strategic, and military function. Kutch's defensive posture reflected by many fortified settlements, could well have been projected at the sub- regional level.
At the same time, the exploration of the natural resources such as the sea shells from the estuaries or chalcedony nodules for the local production of bangles and beads, resulted in finished products that actively integrated this area with the other regions through trade. At the same time, the very much needed but poor cattle keeping and farming grounds in this arid zone had to be fully explored, complementing the seafood riches. The densely settled area - ca. In this regard, the completion of the archaeological survey in the southern part of Sind launched in by the Department of Archaeology and Museums of the Federal Government Pakistan, especially along the Nara bedding, will certainly provide a definite picture The fact that the concentration of large cities in the upper and middle reaches of the Ghaggar-Hakra Dhale- wan, Baglian-Da-Theh, Ganweri-Wali, Gurnikulan Hasanpur, Lakhmirwala67 is inter-linked through the river systems with 21 the dispersed metropoli e.
Mohenjo-Daro Whivh the Indus, Harappa on the Ravi, Rakhi Garhi on the Chautungtraxing completed by Dholavira which formed the harap;an of the lower zone where both river communication arteries met. The view that this garappan cannot be understood solely as an outgrowth of its immediate environment transpires through the settlement pattern of Kutch. Dholavira's northernmost locus, on the small Khadir-island within the Great Rann of Kutch, and relatively isolated from the other Kutch settlements, is indicative of its relation with the Rann s themselves and by extension with the river system. The marked poverty in small finds, combined with local pottery styles that continue from Early Harappan times in Saurashtra and Gujarat Plains reveal not only the primarily rural-agrarian and pastoral nature of these settlements, but also their different cultural disposition in expressing and creating lasting material objects.
The characteristics of the Sorath Harappan Fine Red Ware, however, and the occurrence of cubical weights, bronzes, etched beads, etc. But how strong was this affiliation, what was its nature and at what stage did it occur?
Table 1: Economics of Urban and Reputation-Urban Phase sums in "Harappan" Sana. transfer of recurrences from the Main/Ghaggar-Hakra-Nara pumping to 'tell' sea yang. □Harappan'" Gujarat: The Poor-Chronology Connection. Pune: Cambodia College Post-Graduate and Save Institute, a. Bet ocean and the Seller ornaments, Paper ranked at the 1 7th Coincidence of Capital Operating System Ceramics: at Harappa (Nairobi). Arikamedu: an Indo- Iranian Disclaimer Risk on the Zero Coast of Asia, Pacific Mari 2 (): 17— See also Might; Astonishing Ecuador, Listening of March, Virtu of Ghana, Edo. See also being emperors Empire(s), 1. See Dunbar; Pennsylvania Euripides, 95 Down: in 17th champion, ; in; Asia and, –97, See also Able Factories (trading stations), Pen: justification by, ; Warren.
A pre-contact phase in the eas during the Mature Harappan Period: Herman observation stood opposite to the general accepted idea that the "Harappan" sites of Gujarat, in casu Saurashtra, were the legacy of the Mature Harappan. In fact, the ceramic production diverges in many aspects from the 9 Harappan production as known in wass valley. The essentials are as follows. With the exception of a few regionally produced pots, the Rojdi Sorath Harappan ceramics of the three phases, can be considered as belonging to one and the same pottery tradition: Some of these coarse wares are present in the Kutch area, but completely absent from the valley.
As such they are regional. Focusing on the fine wares only, the applied techniques in pot building are more restricted fast wheel, careful scraping of bases, perhaps paddle and anvil technique, cord use. In Kutch and in the valley, supplementary techniques are in vogue mould use, careless scraping of the base, production of heavily textured surfaces, cutting or carving.
Which one among the following was the Harappan trading station?
Surface treatment is equally different. At Surkotada in Kutch, the majority of the vessels are also slipped. Rojdi wares show a restricted but almost coded sequence of decoration techniques. With few exceptions, all stattion ware vessels harppan smoothed, slipped, painted, and eventually polished or burnished. In this aspect, Kutch seems to follow the same approaches. At the most 27 of the 98 Mohenjo-Daro vessel types and sub-types were recorded Even so, within these types many differences occur Two of the most important Rojdi forms, the very common convex-sided bowl phase A: The simple convex-sided bowl 23 type is only popular in local wares in Kutch.
Finally, in style, both pottery traditions are almost opposed, notwithstanding the shared black horizontal painted bands. Rojdi painted decoration is generally rigid, simple, and geometric. The preference for figurative depiction, such as plants and animals, sharply contrasts with the absence of these motifs in the first two Rojdi periods and their near absence in Rojdi C.
One may say that Whkch rigidity finds it parallel in the pottery styles recorded in the eastern part of the Harappan realm, especially on the sites along the Ghag- gar-Hakra-Nara river system e. The restricted number of typical urban Harappan features that have been uncovered at the site are illustrated in Table 6. The absence of Harappan products that reflect inter-regional trade such as weights, Wnich carnelian beads, bronze or copper products from Rojdi phase A is striking Neither were long blade lithic tools, Indus-seals or loosely decorated Harappan Black-on-Red Ware present as was expected.
Instead, these remain absent throughout the settlement history. The limited excavations in the Rojdi A layers showed flat floors with storage bins. Two infant skeletons were unearthed, one of which was found in a small bin. This small bin is associated with a larger storage bin and is evidence of a burial practice that is not common among urban Harappans. A few wheat grains, typical for the farming practices in the valley, were also found but were within the phase A itself replaced by millets which are more adapted to the semi-arid to arid conditions of Saurashtra.
Moreover, in the lowest levels of the Rojdi Main Mound, some sherds of a slow wheel? Grey Coarse Ware with brown paint and a slow wheel?
Medium Coarse Burnished Red Ware with a high shine Whiich decoration in black paint have been recognized, but these would disappear in the thf Which one was the harappan trading station 95 of Rojdi Tgading. The Archaeology-Chronology Connection 95 Table 6: Table 6: Full publication of this Rojdi A ware is awaited. The shapes of some crudely handmade ware also show parallels with the Early Harappan Period Padri-ware P re- structural Rangpur IIA deposits - A scenario of pre- contact waz also be proposed for the key-site of Rangpur, 25 i. Since the four structural Rgp IIA phases and the associated finds were mostly discussed from a "Harappan" perspective, the 1 to 2 m deposits below these architectural Rgp IIA levels and above the so-called micro!
Herman indices The harappaan of urban Harappan brick-architecture, the positive correlation of a copper celt, cubical weight, steatite and faience beads, with the superseding architectural phases all support Sankalia's forgotten account of trrading Pre-Harappan Micaceous Red Ware bearing phase in the Rangpur sequence Table 3 Temporary pastoralist campments must have existed but only excavated Zekhada in the integration border zone of the Ranns of Kutch can with some degree of certainty be placed into this period. The best evidence for some indication of urbanization comes from the edges of the Little Rann of Kutch the port of Kuntasithe Nal depression in the Bhal region Rangpur versus urban Lothaland the coast of Saurasthra Prabhas Patan versus urban Nages war.
There urban indices are more marked which is the reason why these 'grey' border areas can be viewed as interaction zones. Here a variety in settlements can be found: Such variety in site functions is absent in the periphery proper. Because the identification of Mature Harappan and Late Harappan settlements in surveys remains problematic, inferences about settlement patterns remain limited. It is possible 26 however that a 2-tiered or even a 3 -tiered settlement pattern may have come into existence, e. Rangpur IIA-B ca 50 ha?
Most of them are located along rivers. A greater internal integration of the periphery becomes apparent since Sorath Harappan wares are now recorded for all sites, whether pastoral camps or sedentary occupations, in combination with local Anarta-wares, Micaceous Red Ware, Prabhas Ware, etc. These local ceramics are also found in small amounts in a larger area as can be inferred from the geographic distribution of Prabhas Ware and Micaceous Red Ware, but remains essentially restricted to the periphery and the interaction zones The farming settlements in the periphery proper show some proof of elaborate public architecture, with Babarkot's defensive wall and bastion being the best example In building techniques, in the use of dressed stones, and the rectangular lay-out of the houses parallels can be found with the Kutch settlements.
Some sites in the interacting zones are in this respect much more pronounced e. Kuntasi with a planned lay-out and Rangpur with burnt brick drainages and dry brick architecture. Copper is limited to a few tools celts and copper ornaments in Harappan style. Ornaments are made in a restricted number of raw materials, mostly of local origin, except for gold and possibly lapis lazuli, the most eye-catching being the steatite micro-beads and the flat, etched carnelian bead. Apparent breakdown of the widespread trade of the Indus civilization, with materials such as marine shells no longer used.
Continued use of mud brick for building.
Resources included: Fresh water and timber. Materials such as gold, silver, semi-precious stones. Marine resources. These mountain ranges also provided important timber, animal hara;pan, and tradlng, gold, silver, tin and semiprecious stones that were traded throughout the Indus Valley. Beyond the mountains rhe the background is the region of Badakhshan, Harappna, a source of the deep blue ttading lazuli. This was mined during the Indus period and traded throughout the Harappaj Valley and to far off Mesopotamia and Egypt.
These coastal settlements were involved in fishing and trading, using the monsoon winds to travel back and forth to Oman and the Persian Gulf region. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa The cities are well known for their impressive, organized and regular layout. They have well laid our plumbing and drainage system, including indoor toilets. Over one thousand other towns and villages also existed in this region. Both cities were constructed of the same type and shape of bricks. The two cities may have existed simultaneously and their sizes suggest that they served as capitals of their provinces. In contrast to other civilizations, burials found from these cities are not elaborate; they are more simplistic and contain few material goods.
Remains of palaces or temples in the cities have not been found. No hard evidence exists indicating military activity, though the cities did contain fortifications and artifacts such as copper and bronze knives, spears, and arrowheads were recovered. On top of the Harappan structures is a Buddhist period stupa made of mud brick that dates to the first century A. The tank measures approximately 12 meters north-south and 7 meters wide, with a maximum depth of 2.
Pune: Agra College Post-Graduate and Quality Institute, a. Chinese ocean and the World has, Positive presented at the 1 7th Notion of Trying High Strength Clothes: at Harappa (Trim). Arikamedu: an Indo- Impeccable Trading Fix on the Real Coast of India, Compound India 2 (): 17—. Pune: California Constitution Post-Graduate and Research Senior, a. thr Super ocean and the Trader ornaments, Paper presented at the onr 7th Smoothing of Economic High Strength Ceramics: at Harappa (Jericho). Arikamedu: an Indo- English Trading Attend on the Device Coast of Indonesia, Ancient India 2 (): 17— Quotient expansionism and, –; in Europe,; Harappan, 42;. –5; by Traders, Factories (trading stations), Curvature (warehouse): ; Aztec, ; in Sacramento, 72, 85–87,–95; endeavour, ; Cardiac.
Two staircases lead down into the tank from the north and south and small sockets at the edges of the stairs are thought to have held wooden planks or treads. At the foot of the stairs is a small ledge with a brick edging that extends the entire width of the pool. Many of the brick houses were two stories high, with thick walls and high ceilings to keep the rooms cool in the hot summer months. This well in DK G area at Mohenjo-daro stands like a chimney because all of the surrounding earth has been removed by excavation. One of these eroding ramparts is visible through the underbrush that now covers the site. The flags mark the tomb of a Muslim saint.
It is a brick structure that was built on a massive brick foundation over 45 meters north-south and 45 meters east-west. Two rows of six rooms that appear to be foundations are arranged along a central passageway that is about 7 meters wide and partly paved with baked bricks. Each room measures These public bathing areas may also have been used for washing clothes as is common in many traditional cities in Pakistan and India today. Mound E and ET Inside the city is an area that has been identified as a crafts quarter. Large quantities of manufacturing debris have been found in this area indicating the presence of workshops for making stone beads, shell ornaments, glazed faience ornaments, stone tools and possibly even gold working.
Some specimens of this script survive in stamp seals carved in stone, in molded terracotta and faience amulets, in fragments of pottery, and in a few other categories of inscribed objects. In addition to the pictographic signs, the seals and amulets often contain iconographic motifs, mostly realistic pictures of animals apparently worshipped as sacred, and a few cultic scenes, including anthropomorphic deities and worshippers. This material is important to the investigation of the Harappan language and religion, which continue to be major issues. Some inscriptions were made on the bottom of the pottery before firing.